**Facsimile Editions**

Early 16th and 17th Century Books

faithfully reproduced and true to the originals

printed in Early Modern English

**is the language used from the beginning of the Tudor period**

*Early Modern English*until the transition to

**during the mid-seventeenth century***Modern English**All the books in this series have an introduction which explains the typography, printing conventions and spellings*

*used in Early Modern English, which might puzzle today's readers*

**Title:**

**The Grounde of Artes**

**Author:**

**Robert Recorde**

**Date:**

**1543**

**Subject:**

**Arithmetic**

**Edition:**First

**Pages:**338

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4810896-0-9

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**26 Nov 2012

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 16.99 - U.S.A. $ 26.99**

**The First Of**

**Robert Recorde's**

**Five Extant Works**

*The Grounde of Artes*was printed in London, at the sign of the Brazen Serpent, by Reynold Wolfe in 1543. The book teaches the rules and operations of arithmetic and provides many simple examples. It was probably intended as a textbook for the rapidly increasing number of mercantile clerks, but also for mariners engaged in the newly important science of celestial navigation. Recorde first shows how to carry out numerical operations using pen and paper, which in his time was a comparatively new and potentially confusing way of performing calculations. He goes on to demonstrate arithmetic done with counters, the centuries-old method of manipulating tokens on a ruled board. Finally, he shows how to indicate numbers with the hands, a system practised by merchants in market halls and on quaysides since antiquity. In a preliminary discussion Recorde defines the art of arithmetic and claims it to be the basis of all learning, not only of geometry and astronomy but also of music, physic, law, grammar, philosophy and even theology – hence the title,

*The Grounde of Artes*. The book is written in the form of a dialogue between a master and a somewhat precocious scholar. Recorde makes an effort to reproduce the speaking voice, within the limits of his didactic purpose, in the question and answer sessions. To the modern reader his prose is delightfully colloquial, if always straight to the point and never unnecessarily chatty. In places he injects statements of principle, for example this warning of the dangers of rote learning:

**Scholar.**

*Sir, I thank you: but I think I might the better doe it, if you did shew me the working of it.*

**Master**.

*Yea, but you must prove yourself to doe some things without my aid, or else you shall not be able to doe any more than you are taught: And that were rather to learn by wrote (as they call it) than by reason.*

**Title:**The Urinal of Physick

**Author:**Robert Recorde

**Date:**1547

**Subject:**

**Medicine**

**Edition:**First

**Pages:**182

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm

**ISBN:**978-1-4793231-2-8

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published**: 19 Sep 2012

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 14.99 - U.S.A. $ 23.99**

**The Second Of**

**Robert Recorde's**

**Five Extant Works**

*The Urinal of Physick*was printed in London, at the sign of the Brazen Serpent, by Reynolde Wolfe in 1547. It remained in print for over 130 years, the final edition appearing in 1679 with the revised title

*The Judgment of Urines*. The work is an early urological treatise, concerned with the practice of making diagnoses by inspecting the patient’s urine. Its pages are full of sensible nursing practice in accordance with the mores of the time and the teachings of classical authors such as Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others. Recorde was a physician at the courts of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I; he was also a very learned scholar and mathematician, a teacher of outstanding ability and a skilful textbook writer. He graduated B.A. from Oxford in 1531 and was subsequently licensed by the university to practice medicine. He received an M.D. degree from Cambridge in 1545, thus entitling him to the honorifics of Doctor and Physician.

*The Urinal of Physick*is dedicated to the Wardens and Company of the Surgeons of London, and Recorde signs the dedication “At my house in London. 8 Novemb. 1547”, so he was probably practicing medicine in the city by this date. The book is written in English, rather than scholarly Latin.

**Title:**The Pathway to Knowledge

**Author**: Robert Recorde

**Date:**

**1551**

**Subject:**Geometry

**Edition:**First

**Pages:**196

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4820823-8-8

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published**: 27 Jan 2013

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 14.99 - U.S.A. $ 23.99**

**The Third Of**

**Robert Recorde's**

**Five Extant Works**

*The Pathway to Knowledge*was printed in London, at the sign of the Brazen Serpent, by Reynold Wolfe in 1551. This book is the earliest work on geometry in the English language and was used as a standard textbook well into the middle of the seventeenth century. Recorde's prose is delightfully rhythmical and his poetical phrasing perhaps made learning less of a chore than otherwise for his studious readers. That he well knew this book, although modelled after Euclid, was breaking new ground is evidenced by his statement in the preface to the theorems: 'For nother is there anie matter more straunge in the english tongue, than this whereof never booke was written before now, in that tongue, and therefore oughte to delite all them, that desire to understand straunge matters, as most men commonlie doo'. Recorde encountered an unexpected difficulty when setting out to teach Euclidean geometry to English readers. He found that the English language did not (at that time) have a sufficiency of technical terms. But rather than use longstanding Latin or Greek words, he invented his own English equivalents. So for example, obtuse angles are 'blunt corners', an equilateral triangle is a 'threelike' and a square is a 'likeside'. Unfortunately, Recorde's terminology was not taken up and did not survive the passage of time. Hence schoolchildren in geometry lessons today have to wrestle with difficult Latin words like tangent, instead of Recorde's much more homely and easily understood 'touch line'. The mathematical text itself is extremely lucid in both exposition and diagrams, proceeding from a list of definitions through forty-six constructions and seventy-seven theorems. At the start of the definitions is the statement that 'Geometry teacheth the drawyng, measuring and proporcion of figures' and history produced no finer or more eloquent tutor in the subject than Robert Recorde.

**Title:**The Castle of Knowledge

**Author:**Robert Recorde

**Date:**1556

**Subject:**Astronomy

**Edition:**First

**Pages:**320

**Format**: Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4783559-8-4

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**28 Aug 2012

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 16.99 - U.S.A. $ 26.99**

**The Fourth Of**

**Robert Recorde's**

**Five Extant Works**

*The Castle of Knowledge*was printed at London by Reginalde Wolfe in 1556. The work is a treatise on the celestial sphere, written in the form of a dialogue between a master and a scholar. It is an original and exhaustive study intended to modernise Proclus and Sacrobosco. It deals chiefly with Ptolemaic astronomy but also includes some geographical information as understood in Recorde’s time. In the preface to the reader he extols the heavens as God’s handiwork and consequently meet for study. He also praises the rare wisdom and practical knowledge that astronomy bestows, thereby soliciting approval of both the old heaven and the new earth. Recorde’s writings reflect the strong traditions which he, in common with most educated people of his time, found difficult to discard. These Aristotelian and Ptolemaic traditions postulated that the sub-lunary realm, the seat of the base elements, was subject to change and corruption; in contrast, the heavenly or celestial realm was necessarily pure, immutable and eternal. However, in this book Recorde provides the English reading public with the first significant reference to the heliocentric theories of Nicholas Copernicus. In the guise of the master he briefly mentions the theories to his scholar, explaining that according to Copernicus the sun is at the centre of the world and not the earth, and that the earth moves. This elicits the response from the scholar: ‘I desire not to heare such vaine phantasies, so farre against common reason… and therefore lette it passe for ever, and a daye longer’. At which the master reacts by admonishing him, telling him that he was ‘to yonge to be a good iudge in so greate a matter : it passeth farre your learning… therefore you were best to condemne no thinge that you do not well vnderstand’.

*The Castle of Knowledge*was reprinted in 1596, forty years after the first edition, by which time it was already outdated by later works on Copernican astronomy.

**Title:**

**The Whetstone of Witte**

**Author:**Robert Recorde

**Date:**1557

**Subject:**Arithmetic and Algebra

**Edition:**First

**Pages:**358

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4825893-0-6

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**

**22 Feb 2013**

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 19.99 - U.S.A. $ 29.99**

**The Fifth Of**

**Robert Recorde's**

**Five Extant Works**

*The Whetstone of Witte*was printed at London by John Kingston in 1557. One of Recorde’s concerns in this book is to develop not only a means of representing powers of numbers, but also a means of naming them. Prior to the development of a numerical index notation, the names given to the powers was of considerable importance. Hence in these pages we find terminology which is now archaic, for instance the strange word "zenzizenzizenzike", the name for the eighth power of a number. It is generally acknowledged that Recorde’s treatise on algebra, in the section entitled

*The arte of cossike numbers*, is the first to be printed in the English language. Although this work owes much to the German mathematicians Christoff Rudolff and Michael Stifel, it does have one well known claim to originality; the first use of two parallel lines as the sign for equality (

*because noe 2 thyngs, can be moare equalle*). Recorde’s invention of the equals sign =, together with his adoption of the + sign (

*which betokeneth more*) and the minus sign – (

*which betokeneth less*) placed him at the very forefront of European practice. Like most of Recorde’s books,

*The Whetstone*is written in the form of a dialogue between a learned master and a clever, but rather precocious, scholar. After being patiently encouraged through the seconde parte of arithmetic (begun by the scholar in Recorde’s first book,

*The Grounde of Artes*) followed by the extraction of rootes, the scholar remarks:

*I am moche bounde unto you … Trusting so to applie my studie, and emploie my knowlege, that it shall never repente you of your curtesie in this behalfe.*To which the master, about to start an exposition on the difficult and strange cossike arte (algebra), replies:

*Then marke well my words, and you shall perceive, that I will use as moche plainesse, as I maie, in teaching : And therefore will beginne with cossick numbers first*. Here Recorde is again using terminology that is now archaic. In his day algebra was called the cossic art, derived from the Latin cosa, meaning ‘thing’.

*The Whetstone*also includes a lengthy treatise on the arte of surde nombers, that is, on irrational numbers.

**Ti**

**tle:**An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken

**Author:**Anonymous

**Date:**1539

**Subject**: Arithmetic

**Edition:**Second

**Pages:**240

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4826084-5-8

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**22 Feb 2013

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 15.99 - U.S.A. $ 24.99**

*An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken*is the “rule and question of a catte”. This concerns a cat which climbs a 300 foot high tree, ascending 17 feet each day but descending again 12 feet each night. The problem to be solved is – how long does the cat take to reach the top? The answer given is 60 days, which of course is quite wrong. Another problem concerns “The rule and question of zaracins, for to cast them within the see”. Given that on a sinking ship there are 30 merchants, 15 of whom are Christian and the other 15 Saracens, half of whom must be thrown overboard to save the ship, how should they be ordered so that counting off by nines will always result in a Saracen being sacrificed and never a Christian? Not a problem that fits easily with current ideas about political correctness. Then there is “a dronkart who drynketh a barell of bere in 14 days”, but “when his wife drinketh with him” they empty it in 10 days How quickly, the reader is asked, could his wife drink it alone? These are just a few of the beguiling puzzles set within the pages of this fascinating book.

**Title:**A Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithmes

**Author:**

**John Napier**

**Date:**1616

**Subject:**Logarithms

**Edition:**

**Translation from Latin by Edward Wright**

**Pages:**230

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**978-1-4826183-1-0

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**24 Feb 2013

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 16.99 - U.S.A. $ 25.99**

*Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio.*The importance of the work was quickly perceived and an English language translation by Edward Wright followed two years later, with the title

*A Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithmes*. A further English edition followed in 1618. It is said that this book freed the world from a logjam of calculations. John Napier spent more than twenty years working alone on his system of logarithms, during a time when the multiplication and division of large numbers, as well as the finding of square roots, was considered to be extremely difficult. Because of his discovery of logarithms, these tedious mathematical operations could be replaced by the much easier processes of simple addition, subtraction and division by two. Never again would astronomers, architects, merchants and navigators become bogged down with calculations that were simply too difficult or time consuming to carry out. Seeking a name for his discovery, Napier turned to Greek, coining the word Logarithm from

*logos*(Greek for ratio or reckoning) and

*arithmos*(Greek for number). Johannes Kepler, the imperial mathematician and astronomer at Prague, was one of the first to realize the enormous importance of Naperian logarithms. Initially indifferent, his attitude was quickly changed to one of great enthusiasm when he saw that tables of logarithms could considerably ease the burden of difficult astronomical calculations. The French mathematician and astronomer Pierre Simon Laplace said that logarithms, ‘...by shortening the labours, doubled the life of the astronomer.’ At a congress held in Edinburgh to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the publication of this book, it was remarked that ‘...no previous work had led up to it; nothing had foreshadowed it or heralded its arrival. It stands isolated, breaking upon human thought abruptly, without borrowing from the works of other intellects or following known lines of mathematical thought.’ Thus has posterity judged the worth of John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, and his logarithms.

**Title:**

**A Tutor to Astronomie and Geographie**

**Author:**Joseph Moxon

**Date:**1659

**Subject:**Astronomy and Geography

**Edition:**First

**Pages**: 294

**Format:**Paperback

**Size:**6 x 9 in (152 x 229 mm)

**ISBN:**

**978-1-4826373-3-5**

**Series:**Heritage Reprint

**Published:**

**28 Aug 2012**

**Paperback**

**U.K. £ 16.99 - U.S.A. $ 25.99**

*A Tutor to Astronomie and Geographie*comprises six parts or ‘books’. In the first book, Moxon teaches the rudiments of Ptolemaic astronomy and geography. In the next two books he shows how to use globes to solve many problems in astronomy, geography and navigation. The fourth book teaches how to solve astrological problems, an important subject in Moxon’s time but today considered a pseudo-science of little merit. The fifth book deals with what Moxon calls gnomonical problems, that is, by again using the globes, finding the correct hour lines for many different types of sun-dials. The final book applies the globes to the solution of spherical triangles, a necessary skill for mariners practicing the new art of celestial navigation. Knowledge of how to use globes in the solving of all these sorts of problems is a skill now largely forgotten and Moxon’s treatise is a valuable historic resource on this account alone. Of course, the work may also be viewed as a simple handbook, produced as an aid to selling the celestial and terrestrial globes which Moxon was busy making and advertising at this time. The treatise has two additional books, the first of which is a retelling of ancient and mythical stories about the origins and naming of certain constellations and stars, or what Moxon calls the ‘poetical reasons’ why such bodies are placed where they are in the heavens. The second additional book is of particular value today to historians of astronomy, since it is a masterly exposition of the origins and discoveries of astronomy up to the middle of the seventeenth century. It comprises much myth but also a great deal of fact, the whole providing a fascinating glimpse of these matters as understood by our forebears at the dawn of the scientific age.